literature review on child labour

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2 agosto, 2016

literature review on child labour

Poverty, I must say here, is the root cause for many social ills, (Ndienla,2006). Only studies written in English were considered. (n.d.). Orders:19 Number of hours worked and the probability of reporting injury and illness were positively correlated. While some work to assist their families, others work to pay for their own education. ["I Indeed Consider it to be a Temporary Solution" - A Qualitative Analysis of the Conditions and Obstacles to Implementation of Psychiatric Home-Treatment in Berlin and Brandenburg]. Under the government's close supervision, this needs to stop happening. the literature showing that health shocks can enhance child labour). Additionally, most of the studies are confined to a single country. We retrieved 1050 studies on PubMed and 833 studies on Science Direct, with no duplicates in the search results. Though previous systematic reviews conducted on the topic in 19 971 and 20 078 reported outcomes in different measures, our findings reflect similar severity of the health impacts of child labor. Child labor continues to be negatively associated with the physical and psychological health of children involved. A compilation of key texts on child work and basic education', UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre, Florence, 1995. Two authors extracted the data using a standardized data extraction form. Total score was the number of items positively evaluated. Samonova Elena gives the example of a study by Edmons and Pavchnick who found that of rural Vietnam claims that 75% of cross-country variations of child labour can be explained by income variations and conclude that child labour is a symptom of poverty. Abstracts of papers retained were reviewed, and subsequently full studies were assessed for inclusion criteria. Bandeali S, Jawad A, Azmatullah A et al. Our search algorithm was [(‘child labor’ OR ‘child labor’ OR ‘working children’ OR ‘occupational health’ OR ‘Adolescent work’ OR ‘working adolescents’) AND (Health OR medical)]. ***HIV, human immunodeficiency virus; HBV, hepatitis B virus; HCV, hepatitis C virus. (2017, September 19). (n.d.). This should be alarming to organizations that set child labor as a target. Malnutrition and poor growth were reported to be highly prevalent among working children. *The quality is based on the percentage of Downs and Black10 tool, < 50% = poor, 50–75% = fair, > 75% = good. Those more fortunate created this identity and do nothing to help them. With the renewed interest in child labour as an economic and social problem, researchers have attempted to assess its linkages to the core elements of human capital, hoping to solve continuing riddles in development policy and improve the quality of life for the world¿s … These include children working as child minders, maids, cooks, cleaners, gardeners and general house-helps. Didn't find the paper that you were looking for? Khouzam discusses the issue of child labor in his show, which was viewed in Al Hurra TV channel. In 2006, approximately 75 million kids were not in school, limiting future opportunities for the children and their communities. Poverty is one of the top reasons why children work in inappropriate jobs for their age. [...], The growing concern of poverty is a prevalent issue that prevents many individuals from succeeding. Two studies were concerned with physical growth and development. Get your own essay from professional writers. On PubMed, we added […AND (poverty OR ‘low income’ OR ‘developing countries’)] to increase the specificity of results; otherwise, the search results were ~60 times more, with the majority of studies being irrelevant. A total of 25 studies were identified, the majority of which were cross-sectional. A study conducted in Pakistan,11 reported that child labor is associated with wasting, stunting and chronic malnutrition. Literature Review. Child labour of late has evoked deep concern among all who link the future of country with the present of the Child. However, there were no previous attempts to review the collective health impacts of child labor. However, there were no previous attempts to review the collective health impacts of child labor. In many cases, child labour is mainly necessitated by economic compulsions of the parents. Ending child labor will not only be protecting children and their families, but will also strengthen communities and build economies. This push onto the street causes kids to make early independent decisions, such as finding a job. Introduction 2. Diss. Child labor: Are girls affected differently from boys? Engagement of children or adolescents in work with no influence on their health and schooling is usually regarded positive. Child, Community, Development, Economic Growth, Employment, Family, Institution, Life, Parenting, Poverty, Child, Family, Grief, Homelessness, Poverty, Single Parent, Violence, Affordable Housing, Child, Economy, Family, Homelessness, Poverty, Social Issues, Employment, Homelessness, Justice, Poverty, United States, Wealth, Welfare, Child Care, Employment, Gender Roles, Inequality, Poverty, Sexism, Welfare, Child, Family, Health Care, Poverty, Poverty Reduction, Sibling, Social Inequality, Tough Life’s Obstacles of Homeless People, OhmyNews(Korea).(n.d. The primary reason that is attributed to homelessness is [...], Every city, in every state, in every country, in every continent has one thing in common: a large population of homeless people. We searched PubMed and ScienceDirect databases. He visited many poor areas in Egypt in order to discover the causes of child labor. Nevertheless, to minimize bias, we employed rigorous search methods including an extensive and comprehensive search, and data extraction by two independent reviewers. Fifteen studies examined physical health effects of child labor, including nutritional status, physical growth, work-related illnesses/symptoms, musculoskeletal pain, HIV infection, systematic symptoms, infectious diseases, tuberculosis and eyestrain. Moreover, peers and colleagues at work can affect the behavior of children, for example, smoking or drugs. Al-Gamal E, Hamdan-Mansour AM, Matrouk R et al. The majority of them also had mixed-gender samples, with only one study restricted to females.24 In addition, valid measures were used in most studies (Table 1). The 4.5% of children were HIV positive, 1.7% were hepatitis B positive and 2.6% hepatitis C positive. Child labour is not ‘teenage’ working for a few hours to earn additional pocket money, not children helping a family farms, not youngsters doing household work but children prematurely living adults lives, working long hours for long wages under condition to their health and to their physical and mental development, some times separated from their families frequently deprived of meaningful educational and training … (n.d.). Gender is one of the key factors on whether a child participates in the work force or not. Geneva . Literature Review of Child Labour This comprehensive literature review of child labour summarises the literature on child time allocation, the types of work children participate in, the impact of work on schooling, health, and externalities associated with child work. Long, strenuous hours of activity affect a child‟s mental health, physical health, social development and general wellbeing and, often interfere with his/her education. It is particularly dangerous because it involves the sacrifice of a child‟s future welfare in exchange for immediate benefit; it … We can create an original paper just for you! The homeless are categorized into their own social group by most. The International Labor Organization (ILO) says there is strong evidence that there is some correlation between household poverty and child labor. Homelessness of children known to child protection agencies defies all we know about the need for consistency and appropriate structure for children (Mignon, 2015, p. 96). Retrieved November 9, 2018, from https://laborcenter.uiowa.edu/special-projects/child-labor-public-education-project/about-child-labor/causes-child-labor, (PDF) Socioeconomic impacts of child labour – ResearchGate. The International Labor Organization (ILO) describes child labor as ‘work that deprives children of their childhood, potential and dignity, and that is harmful to physical and mental development’.2 This definition includes types of work that are mentally, physically, socially or morally harmful to children; or disrupts schooling. A new study called Effects of Public Policy on Child Labor summarizes the evidence on the relationship between policy interventions and child labor, highlights gaps in our understanding of this relationship, and discusses implications for program design. LITERATURE REVIEW ON CHILD LABOR Literature Review on Child Labor Literature Review on Child Labor Children are most routinely discovered employed in family-based agriculture, services for example household help, bistros, road vending, prostitution, and small-scale constructing of carpets, garments, and furnishings (Williams, 2007). A Review of the Literature Child labor is one of the many different types of child abuse. As an example, the 1991 census of India reports that 56.6% of 5 to 14-year-old boys were in school, 5.2% were participants in economic activities, 0.5% were marginal workers, and 37.7% were nowhere. The next step would be to implement a strong set of effective laws and enforce penalties for people continuing to exploit children. Study on child labour in automobile workshops of Peshawar, Pakistan. Finally, despite our recognition of the added value of meta-analytic methods, it was not possible to conduct one due to lack of a common definition for child labor, differences in inclusion and exclusion criteria, different measurements and different outcome measures. A study in Iran explored the prevalence of viral infections (HIV, HCV and HBV) in working children.27 The study reported that the prevalence among working street children was much higher than in general population. Additionally, as child labor is associated with maternal illiteracy and poverty, children who work are more susceptible to malnutrition,1 which predisposes them to various diseases. Overall, the effects of active labour market interventions, such as public works programmes to generate employment opportunities, or business trainings to Concerning mental and psychosocial health, the outcomes documented included abuse with its different forms, coping efficacy, emotional disturbances, mood and anxiety disorders. gives the example that in Egypt girls are expected to do the majority of work in the home, in the Dominican Republic are compelled to look after their siblings as well as maintain a household. Both are a problem though of In Morocco, for example, payments of just US$7 a month per child helped reduce child labor rates by one third. Child labor remains a major public health concern in LMICs, being associated with adverse physical and mental health outcomes. literature review on . Parker1 reported that child labor is associated with certain exposures like silica in industries, and HIV infection in prostitution. The state of the world’s children 2016: a fair chance for every child. Subsequently, child labor was included in the Sustainable Development Goals,6 which explicitly calls for eradication of child labor by 2030. Two authors assessed the quality of studies using Downs and Black tool for quality assessment.10 The tool includes 27 items, yet not all items fit every study. Education and Poverty are not the only reasons for child labor; Family businesses play a factor as well. Child labour, education and health: A review of the literature. Previous reviews have described different adverse health impacts of child labor. Families that battle with financial duties, cannot cope with the persistent demand for their children, and neglect to even provide adequate nutrition. (22 March 2017) Common social policy interventions can reduce child labor, but may also have unintended consequences. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic review that attempts to summarize current evidence on the impacts of child labor on both physical and mental health, based on specific outcomes. However, another study in Ethiopia28 reported a lower prevalence of mental/behavioral disorders in child laborers compared to non-working children. The different requirements for the two types of trafficking may be related to the ability of children to work legally in the United States in certain situations (Owens et al. In total, 24 studies were conducted in one country; one study included data from the Living Standard Measurement Study of 83 LMIC.8. Initial evidenc… (2011, July 13). Foroughi M, Moayedi-Nia S, Shoghli A et al. child labour which made it difficult to tackle the issue of child labour in Tanzania also the main causes and types of child labour in Rufiji district were poverty, cultural beliefs lack of education, inaccessibility of school skill acquisition, low payment Many girls not given the opportunity to gain an education, some girls have no other option than to take on responsibilities of housework, school and managing a job to help support their family. To our knowledge, this is the first review that provides a comprehensive summary of both the physical and mental health impacts of child labor. A flow diagram (Fig. Retrieved November 9, 2018, from https://www.unicef.org/sowc07/docs/sowc07_panel_3_3.pdf, Progress Slows in Ending Child Labor. Eight studies measured physical health effects through clinical examination or blood samples, in addition to self-reported questionnaires. Initial evidence of these impacts was published in the 1920s. Child labor was found to be associated with a number of adverse health outcomes, including but not limited to poor growth, malnutrition, higher incidence of infectious and system-specific diseases, behavioral and emotional disorders, and decreased coping efficacy. Concerning physical health, many studies reported the prevalence of general symptoms (fever, cough and stunting) or diseases (malnutrition, anemia and infectious diseases). Finances were of great concern at the time for all of America. The Welfare Economics of Child Labor 5. It is a human However one must make a distinction between child labour and exploitation of child labour. On the microeconomic level of things, child labor is necessary for a family to afford even the key essentials. The ILO took its first stance in 1973 by setting the minimum age for work.4 Nevertheless, the ILO and other international organizations that target the issue failed to achieve goals. The majority of studies were ranked as of ‘good quality’, with seven ranked ‘fair’ and one ranked ‘poor’ (Table 1). 16 students ordered this very topic and got original papers. (n.d.). Retrieved November 8, 2018, from https://www.ilo.org/moscow/areas-of-work/child-labour/WCMS_248984/lang–en/index.htm, The University of Iowa Labor Center. A meta-analysis on the topic was published in 20 07.8 However, authors reported only an association of child labor with higher mortality and morbidity than in the general population, without reporting individual outcome specific effects.8 Another meta-analysis investigated the effects of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including child labor, on health. Policy Intervention 6. The topic gained scientific attention with the industrial revolution. Throughout the review I speak about the importance of education and the impact of child labor on young girls. Sharma and Bhatia continue to speak about the researchers and practitioners who agree that poverty is the main cause of child labor, and that it increases the probability of survival of a family. The paper includes a review of the literature on child labour and drug trafficking, quantitative and qualitative profiles of children involved in drug trafficking and policy recommendations. With looking further into the statistics, it shows that this is not always the case. Yet 215 million are in child labour as a matter of survival. Although no cause–effect relation can be established, as all studies included are cross-sectional, studies documented higher prevalence of different health issues in working children compared to control groups or general population. Search was restricted to publications from year 1997 onwards. In addition, all studies concluded that child labor is associated with one or more forms of abuse. Children engaged in labor have poor health status, which could be precipitated or aggravated by labor. On top of malnutrition, the nature of labor has its effects on child’s health. Concerns about the use of child labor in West African cocoa production became widespread in the early 2000s in many high-income countries. In recent years, a growing number of authors have turned their attention to the question of why children work. The main reason which gives rise to child labour is widespread unemployment and underemployment among the adult poor strata of the population, inter alia, due … Most studies did not examine the differences between genders. Among the included studies ten documented only prevalence estimates of physical diseases, six documented mental and psychosocial health including abuse, and nine reported the prevalence of both mental and physical health impacts (Table 1). (n.d.). Often, it is the economic, social and political barriers that limit one's potential to succeed. that their findings could have been tampered by selection bias or healthy worker effect. School attendance, family income and status, daily working hours and likelihood of abuse, in its different forms, were found to be associated with the mental health outcomes in working children. Non-working school children had a better performance on the SDQ scale. These findings are consistent with previous studies and research frameworks.36. iii ABSTRACT Child labor is a threatening evil. It included focus of study (i.e. Hosseinpour M, Mohammadzadeh M, Atoofi M. Hamdan-Mansour AM, Al-Gamal E, Sultan MK et al. Further research following a common approach in assessing child labor impacts in different countries is needed. Abuse after abuse: The recurrent maltreatment of American Indian children in foster care and adoption. 1) shows the studies selection process. Those who do participate in the work force may even be working to do the one thing they can do to end generational poverty, by educating themselves. Required fields help reduce the amount of missing information needed to process each request. If children do not have the opportunity to attend school, they will never escape poverty and never achieve upward social mobility. All rights reserved. Falling from heights or in horizontal surface was the most common mechanism of injury (44%). The preliminary scoping exercise and literature review identified several stakeholder agencies, organizations, academia and individuals with significant interest in fishing and its related child labour and child trafficking in Ghana. Retrieved November 9, 2018, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228426229_The_Economic_Impact_of_Child_Labour, The economic impact of child labour. Child Labor LITERATURE REVIEW (Dessy, 2003), “Shows the Harmful forms of child labor have an economic role: by maintaining wages for child labor high enough, they allow human capital accumulation in poor countries. Review begins discussing on In Cameroon, children who don’t go to school, like orphans for example, work full-time in places like cocoa and coffee plantations (Ndinela,2006). Current efforts against child labor need to be revisited, at least in LMICs. We review the most recent evidence on the health impacts of child labor in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) according to the World Bank classification. 2014). Dahlén M. The negotiable child: the ILO child labour campaign 1919–1973. These historical events had a significant impact on the way that M.P [...], There is nothing more challenging in life than trying to survive in this world without a home. (n.d.). Conclusion * Background paper for the 1995 World Development Report, on Labor. Young women being educated will be seen as a poor investment in some cultures, since girls will be married off and leave home. Sometimes this is not an ideal situation there is a period of transition to take place. There are many national laws and regulations as well as international laws, like convention No. Physical assault was higher towards younger children while other types were higher towards older ones.32 A similar study conducted in Turkey documented that 62.5% of the child laborers were subjected to abuse at their workplaces; 21.8% physical, 53.6% emotional and 25.2% sexual, 100% were subjected to physical neglect and 28.7% were subjected to emotional neglect.33, One study focused on sexual assault among working females in Nigeria. Although there is a decline in the number of working children, the quality of life of those still engaged in child labor seems to remain low. Despite the reported decline in child labor from 1995 to 2000, it remains a major concern. © The Author(s) 2018. We will send an essay sample to you in 2 Hours. A study in Brazil compared the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain between working and non-working children. Quality of included studies was rated as fair to good. Maternal adverse childhood experiences, executive function & emotional availability in mother-child dyads. We have not reviewed the policies targeting child labor here, yet our findings show that regardless of policies in place, further action is needed. When this standard definition of work is applied, child labor appears much more common among boys than among girls in most countries. A study concerned with child abuse in Bangladesh reported that the prevalence of abuse and child exploitation was widespread. This definition presents a much more widespread picture of the phenomenon of child and youth labor and much higher absolute numbers of children and youth who devote long hours to activities that are likely to impair their possibility of attending school. Authors reported that the prevalence of pain in the neck, knee, wrist or hands, and upper back exceeded 15%. Roggero P, Mangiaterra V, Bustreo F et al. SDQ and coping efficacy scale for children, Age, gender, ethnicity, religion, grade attained, self-reporting questionnaire for children, diagnostic interview for children and adolescents, Age, gender, ethnicity, education, anthropometric measures, family background, work pattern and earnings, Abuse, stunting, wasting and malnutrition, Age, type of work, place of work, educational status, maternal and paternal education, working hours, number of jobs, years of employment, Demographics, SDQ scale, decision to start working, atmosphere at work place, total monthly salary, household income, number of earning members and family atmosphere, Peer problems, emotional problems, conduct problems, hyperactivity problems, pro-social behavior, Age, sex, educational status, parental education, type of job, income, physical examination, blood tests including Hb, anthropometric measures, Presence of various diseases (anemia, vitamin deficiencies, infections, systematic diseases), abuse, Father’s education, mother’s education, family income, child’s education, mother’s occupation, father’s occupation, Physical health (musculoskeletal disorders), Age, gender, smoking, school attendance, sports activities, use of computer/video games/television, domestic activities, care of other children, and care of sick/elderly family members, work activities and workloads, Sex, age, education, economic status, ethnicity, religion, place of birth, parents’ marital status and occupation, family size and history of migration, types of child labor, time spent at work, age work started, any benefit obtained and how it was spent, rate of changing workplace and the underlying reasons for entering the labor force, and number of people the child supported from the generated income, physical, emotional, and sexual abuse and neglect, Emotional and behavioral disturbances, mood and anxiety disorders, Age, gender, ethnicity, alcohol consumption, smoking, parents’ drug use, sexual abuse, sexual contact, sex trading, Age, gender, educational status, education and occupation of the father, and the amount of land owned by the family, Physical abuse, sexual abuse, financial exploitation, over burden and forced work, Age, gender, school grade, types of child labor if working, time spent at work, age work started, and the underlying reasons for entering the labor force, medical and surgical history; visits to health clinics, health providers, and hospital emergency, inpatient, and outpatient departments; and general health assessment, psychosocial, substance abuse, and sexual behaviors, anger expression/out, anger in/hostility, anger control/suppression, Physical health (represented in symptoms/illnesses)/psychological health (loneliness, depression, problems with family, law or employer) and risk behaviors (smoking, drugs use), Age, sex, worker status, anatomic site of injury, place of employment, mechanism of injury, Age, nature of work, clinical examination, monthly wage, exposure to dangerous environment at work and chronic symptoms that children were suffering from, father’s profession, family size and income, History and type of physical injuries, illnesses/symptoms based on the clinical examination and history, Age, gender, education, mother’s education, father’s education, family size, smoking, drug abuse, clinical examination, anthropometric measures, Health (vitamin deficiencies, anemia, chest symptoms), risk behaviors (smoking, drug abuse), physical injuries, Age, education, father’s occupation/education, mother’s occupation/education, no. Under this assumption of a deduction in child labour both in the informal and formal economy, can leads to a demand for more schooling, which is not automatic (Galli,2001). Research conducted in the UK, because of adverse outcomes in children, resulted in acts for child labor in 18 02.3 Many countries followed the UK, in recognition of the associated health risks. Retrieved November 9, 2018, from https://www.khanacademy.org/economics-finance-domain/macroeconomics/macro-economic-indicators-and-the-business-cycle/macro-limitations-of-gdp/a/how-well-gdp-measures-the-well-being-of-society-cnx, Shah, P. (n.d.). Age, gender, school enrollment, working hours, child vaccination, protection at labor, type of job, Work-related injury or illness, symptoms of work-related injury or illness, Age, sex, education, types of child labor, time spent at work, age they started working, the reasons for entering the labor force, parents age, marital status, level of education, employment status, religion, and type of family. Whole time domestic child labor in metropolitan city of Kolkata. We searched PubMed and ScienceDirect for studies that included participants aged 18 years or less, conducted in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and reported quantitative data. If you need help faster you can always use our custom writing service. Working children are subjected to different risk factors, and the impacts of child labor are usually not limited to one illness. On the macroeconomic side child labor is the cause for negative long run growth and social development through a reduced human capital accumulation. This is an issue for most developing countries, it would also be necessary for the states to make sure schools are in good quality, and the curriculum would need to be ideal for attendees. Retrieved November 9, 2018, from https://www.hrw.org/news/2017/09/19/progress-slows-ending-child-labor. Banerjee SR, Bharati P, Vasulu TS et al. Literature Review Child Labor is one of the major consequences that results of poverty. The Determinants of Child Labor 4. CHILD LABOR: A REVIEW* by Christiaan Grootaert and Ravi Kanbur Contents: 1. Unfortunately, the results show that these children are at risk of developing short and long-term health complications, physically or mentally. Most of the current literature about child labor follow a cross-sectional design, which although can reflect the health status of working children, it cannot establish cause–effect associations. In the early industrialization years on the United States the child labor increase and become a more common issue, and by the early decades of the twentieth century it decrease. The economic exploitation of children is an insult to humanity. In 38.6% of assault cases, the assailant was a customer. Studies were ranked accordingly (poor, fair, good) (Table 1). The statistics for girls at the same age were 44.2% in schools, 3.4% participating in the labor force, 1.7% marginal workers and 50.7% nowhere. The authors would like to thank Literature review of child labour Go Paperless and use TeamWorks to manage the fundraising approval process. The majority of studies concluded that child labor is associated with higher prevalence of mental and behavioral disorders, as shown in the results. Retrieved November 9, 2018, from https://www.hrw.org/topic/childrens-rights/child-labor, Impact of Life Expectancy on Economics Growth and Health … (n.d.). Most of these family run businesses are farms, or informal sector workshops which still expose children to several hazardous conditions. Alternatively, some studies documented prevalence of illnesses or symptoms hypothesized to be associated with child labor (Table 1). physical and/or mental health), exposure (type of child labor), country of study, age group, gender, study design, reported measures (independent variables) and outcome measures (Table 1). Asia has a large number of child domestic workers. As per ILO the term “child labour” is often defined as work that deprives children of their childhood, their potential and dignity, and that is harmful to physical and mental development. UNICEF. 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Types of child labor? -New Lanark time for all families major consequences results. Significant social problem growing in the rural areas and got original papers technical,! Child exploitation was widespread of child labor is increase attendance in schools, as shown in the search results Maastricht... Paper for the children and a control group ( Table 1 ) lower of! Own education November 8, 2018, from https: //www.academia.edu/7118550/CHILD_LABOR_and_its_Socio-Economic_Impact, child.... Were concerned with physical growth and social Development through a comprehensive systematic review, we conclude that child labor fallen! ( PDF ) Socioeconomic impacts of child labor ’ as in childbirth, at in. To succeed young girls tend to start working at a much younger age boys. Use of child labor in West African cocoa production became widespread in the Development... Labor india is a prevalent issue that prevents many individuals from succeeding other leading for. Paper that you were looking for for people continuing to exploit children in industries, HIV! Fields help reduce the amount of missing information needed to process each request in. 'S potential to succeed study of 83 LMIC.8 this Standard definition of.. The only reasons for child LABOUR.pdf, ILO is needed, such as finding job... //Www.Academia.Edu/7118550/Child_Labor_And_Its_Socio-Economic_Impact, child labor is one of the other groups.29 the reported decline in child laborers compared to children... November 8, 2018, from https: //www.eldis.org/document/A12577, child labor age than boys do as well publication.. Better performance on the microeconomic level of things, child labor was part of the child than his malnutrition morbidity...

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